Around 1614 Dutch fur trader Adriaen Block sailing up the Connecticut River is the first white man to set foot on the land now known as Hartford. Around 1633 the Dutch erect a fort and call it the House of (Good) Hope. They abandonned the post around 1640 after the English settlers arrived. By the end of April, 1636, Reverend Thomas Hooker, his assistant Samuel Stone and much of their church congregation from Newtowne, Massachusetts (now known as Cambridge, Massachusetts) arrive in Hartford and called it Newtown after their previous colony. This group is now known as the founders of Hartford. In little more than a year's time in 1637 the people of Hartford would become involved in the conflict with the Pequot Indians known as the Pequot War. During this time Hartford fell under the jurisdiction of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
On January 14, 1638 freemen from the towns of Windsor, Hartford and Wethersfield voted on the fundamental orders. In essence the fundamental orders were the colonists declaration of their own colony, separate from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and became the first written constitution in the colonies. This evolved into the Colony of Connecticut and the first governor elected was John Haynes.
Listed below is a link to the pages available here for Hartford, Connecticut.